Noble Norse


 

May the gods of Asgard guide your steps
May Thor’s hammer protect you
may Freya give you wisdom and Magical Power
and may Freyr grant you Prosperity

Holding the Heathen Hammer high

I’ve always liked Norse Mythology and wished we would have covered mythology in history class at some point during my school years. Sadly that NEVER happen, but fortunately I’ve been trying to compile everything I can into one page for others, from Basic knowledge, to the gods, Vikings and anything else.

I took one of those personality tests (link should be included somewhere on the page) to see what Norse God I’d be and it ended up being Odin. (Who is the god of MANY things and probably the reason he is called the all father.) Odin is the chief god of the Norse pantheon. Odin is the god of… War, death, Poetry, prophecy, magic, victory, & the Hunt.

Part of the Aesir Odin resides in Asgard at Valaskjalf palace for which he built for himself, and sits on his throne Hlidskjalf where he can spectate what happens in each of the nine worlds. He rides his 8 legged steed Sleipnir in to war wielding his spear called Gungnir

I previously had the Days of the week noted here, but it never looked right however I wonder why Loki doesn’t have his own day (beside the fact he’ s a pain in everyone’s mead horns). I know he’s only half god but Why no Loki day? Oh wait that’s right his day is sort of a holiday, or at least the day before one. That would be Mischief Night which is October 30th.

I have so much information I can post & there’s only so many links I can post from certain sites etc here so I may make a seperate page on one of my blogs for it instead, Or make a blog of its own likely with this same title.

So here I give you

ThorSquid ©2013

(by Request) thanks to Steve Thompson Proud sponsors of www.DogTagsForKids.com supporting our military families.. Use of image upon permission; On my end show proof you made a donation of at least $1 and on my end you have it… but you need to ask Steve as well. I do not claim credit for the intro image. A friend posted it on my facebook page & is from as long as the raven flies by raven_tales it will change once I find a picture more suitable to cover the topic. Credit for it is given in the polaroid later on in the page.

Norble Norse Norns Logo text made with Cooltext  ‘quotes; are from Elder and or Poetic edda


Tell One your Thoughts but beware of 2

all know what is known to three

Mads Mikkelsen

Mads Mikkelsen

International Viking day

May 8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wc5zUK2MKNY

What You Can Learn About Fitness, Women, and Friendship From the Vikings

Cool Facts you didn’t know about the Vikings

core themes are limited gods, trickery, doom, and heroism
The gods are the inhabitants of  Asgard, which is just one of 9 worlds. The other words are homes to ice giants, fire giants, dwarfs, humans, and other creatures. There is no God sitting above all worlds, though we are rooting for the Aesir of Asgard. The Aesir aren’t even the only godlike beings. There are also the Vanir, who mix with the Aesir, but are their own race.

Odin has to earn his powers. He plucks out his own eye to exchange for a drink from a well that grants great knowledge. He impales himself on the world-tree at the axis of the 9 worlds with his great spear in order to gain mastery of the magic of runes. He relies on magic items, pets–such as the two ravens, Thought and Memory, that bring back knowledge of the world–and his allies.

One of Odin’s key allies is Loki, the trickster god, descended from frost giants. Unlike in the Thor comics, Loki is actually the blood brother of Odin. Odin relies on Loki’s cunning to outfox others, such as the giants. This theme of trickery appears in other contexts, where Loki is a villain, attempting to fool Thor and others. Remember that ancient Germanic people loved riddles and valued cleverness as well as strength.

Loki’s trickery ultimately leads to the gods’ doom, starting the world-ending battle known as Ragnarök . This sense of doom is always there beneath the stories. The Norns are three women who weave the fates of god and men.

In the face of the death that must come to us all, gods and great warriors show heroism, fighting monsters. The greatest mortal warriors go to the heroes’ hall, Valhalla, upon death, where they can feast and drink until the ultimate war, Ragnarök. Where upon the island of Óskapt the Gods and Giants will fight the final battle.

OLD NORSE words

Svinfyklija- swine array or boarsnout

Dvoeverie -double faith (some Vikings eventually embraced Christianity but continued believing in their Pagan gods

Drengr – raiding as an occupation

Volsug– decendents of Odin through Ragnar

Ynglings-decended of Frey from Aslug

Alfǫðr (Allfather)

rǫkstólar (judgement-seats)

Hliðskjálf,- Odin’s Throne

Valfǫðr (Father of the chosen-slain)

beinlausi-legless (one translation)

Svinfyklija- swine array or boarsnout

Dvoeverie -double faith (some Vikings eventually embraced Christianity but continued believing in their Pagan gods

Skol-cheers  (offereing friendship and goodwill to other northmen when drinking during special occasions)

Nie- No

Ver her- were here

Vik–small inlet

Vika -Sea Mile

Vikja -motions/move by sea

Viking/Vikingr – male and female word ‘to go raiding’  This word would I’ve found is meant more like Pirates, as Jackson Crawford mentions                             in one of his videos, and that the ‘vikings’ would themselves be insulted by it. The right word we should use is Drengr

(uh oh looks like I forgot the U in Younger)

Old Norse Language 1

Old Norse 2

THe Last Viking Returns- children’s book and activity & learning resources

The Poetic Edda is a collection of (mostly unrelated) Old Norse poems, passed down orally then written down together in one manuscript in Iceland in the 1200s. The Prose Edda was also written down in the 1200s in Iceland, but has a single author who composed it, Snorri Sturluson.   – Dec 1

The Virtues

Image result for Hagar the Horrible MovieWe are dispositioned to believe that the Norse (Vikings) were nothing but hordes of foul horrifying raiders with very bad hygiene which wore horned helmets; however this is not so. It’s thanks due to Richard Wagner’s opera ”Der Ring des Nibelungen” (The Ring of Nibelung) which premiered in 1876. However upon checking out images, they all seem to be with wings NOT Horns (though I’m surprised no one thought they wore birds on their heads because of this). Even so I normally blamed it on Hagar the Horrible comic strip created by cartoonist Dik Browne for the Horned helmets. 

They were actually clean, many were farmers who liked their mead and a good raid during the spring. Harvests can fail so the raids were their insurance for resources for their needs for the harsh winter months.

Life and Culture

In OUR times of Political correctness VIKING I have learned is a negative term, more like Pirate. (from Jackson Crawford’s old Norse youtube channel)  the word for

Vi king (feminine) =to go       Vikingr -Raiding      raiding as an occupation  is Rengr

Vik  – small inlet

Vika Sea mile

Vikja motions/move by sea

Life & Death

They lived to be 40-50 years old

3 Classes

Thrall (Slave)

Karl (Farmer)

Jarl (Cheiftain or Aristocrat type)

No Pure warrior class. Every Man had to be a fighter even women were trained for defense.

Shield Maidens were women that chose to go to battle alongside the men instead of their responsibilities on the home front.

Berserker- 2 possible explanations was ‘Bear shirts’ made of bear pelts and maybe even the head for uses as a hood or helmet) or old norse for bare of chest implying to have fought that way. Another variation comes from Ulf Hednar and that it was wolf skins they wore.

The Raven Banner was flown by Viking Chieftains & Scandinavian rulers in battle from 9th-11th centuries

Silver was targeted in raids more than the other valuables!

Powerful Kings most often gave half of ther body gaurds to their Queen and maintained (paid) them himself.

Both Men & women were independent & enterprising.

Volva Women had immense authority and were often paid for their prophetic services

-any man prepared to die for what he believed was important was held in high esteem by friends and foes alike.

It was much easier in Viking age Scandinavia to move up the social ladder than anywhere else in Europe

An Earl or King would have ‘Household troops ‘ which were the most experienced warrirors placed on the front lines for battle

Norse women were one of the most liberated of the times. They had status, some being Priestesses, wise women, shield maidens (warriors) rune mistress, & healers. Women as equal to the men cold go before the Thing (assembly) and request for divorce or be granted justice just as men unlike man other cultures or religions of the times. Viking men and women were possibly as close to equals as we are today.

The women were buried in the best attire along with brooches of Gilt bronze

‘Burials’ were most commonly done during the Viking era by cremating the body with clothes and jewelry (also burring the ashes with grave goods) During the show Vikings, they have shown some being put in a ship with their things sometimes the broken hearted would sacrifice themselves to be with the deceased & the ship would be lit aflame, & cast off.

according to @Viking_facts While Christians were normally buried oriented east- west a pagan burial was usually North-south

Runestone memorials were brightly colored (when carved) and were used from the 4th – 12th centuries They started out simple & grew more complex over the years

LAWS

Viking Law

The Vikings and the law

Holmgang- a duel

Ting-Viking Court of Law

Law would pass judgement on punishment for ‘crime’ either by fire or making the guilty party an outlaw. An outlaw had no protection or help whatsoever.

*Strict code of repayment or ‘wereguild’ for injury or death of any human or naimal

*Gossip was considered worse crime since they considered their good name of #1 importance:

offense taken to shuns of honor led to m any blood feud that lasted generations.

a wife that was powerful hung her keys from her gown, and if removed by her husband was imediate grounds (if she so wished) to instantly divorce him & keep any shared property

They had a method of execution which is referenced in the (Norse) Sagas called ‘Blood Eagle’ which one would think would be a Kenning from the sound of it. This was performed by cutting the victim’s ribs by the spine and pulling out the lungs through the wounds until they bled to death. The lungs would be placed on their shoulders which would look like wings folded back. . They believed the sentenced had to stay silent during the execution in order to remain worthy of entering Valhalla

Every free man technically had an equal say in decisions, trials and other disputes, sadly tho’ like today those with more money used their influence to ‘sway’ these descisions.

Immigration in the Viking Era

The Gulathing Law described in detail how a shield was to be made

The Althing (an assembly) was the first national Parliament in the world and was established in Iceland in 930 A.D.

8 Viking Myths Busted

Home

read about the ‘Cowboy Vikining’scholar

The wealthier side of the Norse (like Kings & such) would have their walls whitewashed, burning the lime themselves

breed of herd dogs that were used during the Viking age were : Norweigan Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog, Vallhund, Lapp reindeer dog, & Lapphund

Lighting in typical Long house came only from the smoke holes in the roof, and doors leading outside. If that wasn’t enough they had to use simple lamps or torches

Beer was made to be both weak which was consumed on a daily basis, and strong was used during festivities.

Medical treatments included cleaning wounds, setting broken bones, lancing, used bandages, anointing, & herbal remedies.

Plague was a very common tragedy killing hundreds spreading through England & Scandinavia

Names for your little warriors

Vikings ¤

Looks

Nordic men bleached their hair with lye soap in keeping with the culture’s beauty standards to become ‘golden heads’

Shoes were basically a piece of leather sewn to the shape of the wearer’s foot and leather straps to secure it.

They were surprisingly cleaner than you think and did not wear the horned helmets (as perceived in Hagar the Horrible comic strip which started) this started about the end of the 19th century

Clothes; from material to cut & Style, indicated one’s wealth & influence

Not all Vikings were red heads (Denmark) or Blonds like those of Scandinavian decent

What Vikings REALLY looked like

Imports & ExportsViking Recipe - Viking Flat Bread

Common exports of Norway were: Timber, whetstones, Soapstone, iron, barley & tar

Exports of Sweden were: Iron & Fur

Exports of Iceland: animal fat, fish, sulfur & clothes

Food 

Game animals (deer, bear, elk and boar) were hunted for food using spears or Bow & arrows. In the North Seals & Walruses were hunted.

The only thing to sweeten food in the viking age was wild honey

Smoking Salting & drying during the summer and autumn are how fish were preserved.

I have only heard of mead which I have seen made by fermenting honey but @Viking_Facts note Bjorr was a popular drink & that it was a strong liquor made from fermented fruit.

Berserkers are believed to have fought in a drug-induced frenzy by eating hallucinogenic mushrooms

Thor’s Hammer in Iceland: Interview with Ragnheiður Gló Gylfadóttir

Miscellany

Numbers were usually spelled out on rune stones

according to @Vikings_facts Runes were used from c. 1600 with the younger Futhark used through the Viking age

Homosexuality was not considered evil, perverted, etc. Though men who subjected themselves to sex with another man was thought to be a follower.

Horses weren’t used much in battle other than to get the leaders to the battlefield quicker.

The indigenous people of Nothern Scandinavia called Sami had a good trading relationship with the Norse and even intermarriages.

Duels were common to settle disputes, oft ending in death but the earliest one could end is when blood falls on a cloak or ground.

Dialects (languages based from) of Old Norse ::

{West Norse } Iceland, Greenland & Norway,

{East Norse} Denmark & Sweden then there was Gutnish from Gotland

Faroese and there was Norn, spoken in the northern isles until the 18- 19th centuries

Icelandic is the closest to Old Norse and Icelanders can easily read the sagas in their original format

Numeric reckoning

Units of Meausure

Strongly believed in their role of honor & freedom. Outspoken & fearless in battle, steadfast on friendship and have even taken to sworn bloodoaths. A man fostered in a family can claim the same rights & help as blood members.

Viking Art 

All for 1, 1 for all~ The First Muketeers?

an insult to one’s family member was an insult to all. If a member was discraced, all members of the family were affected.

Disir they are basically spirits (ghosts) that can be antagonistic or not toward the living and may act as protectors of a clan. Some think they may be the same as their version of wights or nature spirits.

Calendar & Celebrations

(I’m, including links here until I can work out a way to include the Months Days & celebrations in a grid)

There are 8 major celebrations or ‘blots’ (pronounciated as bloat) here is page that I found very informative Sacred Calendar of Asatru

2013 Norway Calander

OLD Norse month names

Anglo Saxon calendar

Full Months information

Asatru alliance Runic Calendar celebrations

An Asatru calendar of the celebrations

Asatru wiccan & nordic celebrations

Astrology

Vikings grew Hemp

Entertainment

Loved a good story and a jest.

Sports & Board games were played after the Nattmal (Night meal). I’m sure it’s needless to say that the sports were often physical and Bloody

-In Viking culture a quick witted poet could win fame and fortune just as a brilliant warrior. Anyone who was both had the world at his or her feet.

Viking Age art graph from @Viking_facts here’s more on Viking art

Harps Bells & drums

There were 2 types of Entertainers or Musicians That of: skalds (Bards) would tell stories & recite poems at feasts & celebrations & Jesters– who were pretty low in status.

Alvissmal- (Norse) Scaldic synonyms here’s one from the Poetic Edda

Hyndlvljoth (Norse) – Historical, Gynecological poem

Runic Poetry

YES! I finally found a list of Kennings

The Use of Kennings in Anglo Saxon Literature

Kennings- Phrase which all hearer knew was image of something else. (something like a simile and metaphor)

Fire of Odin & Fire of the Valkyries= depict a sword

hawks fell=hand

Falcon’s tree- Human forearm

Ship of Dwarves= Poetry

tears of Freya or cushion of the Dragon Fafnir= Gold

Reddening of Spears or Valkyries magic song= battle

wound dew- blood

to feed the ravens or to sate the eagles = killing enemies

The Fire- Gold

Bone stones= Fossils

Sun Blood= gold

How Vikings Killed Time  (also see games section toward end)

Viking cultures and stories of the wild west both portray self-reliance,

a certain grit and a fatalistic sense of humor.” –Jackson Crawford

Gods and Myths of Northern Europe.

Asgard

In Norse religion, Asgard (Old Norse: Ásgarðr; meaning “Enclosure of the Æsir”) is one of the Nine Worlds and is the country or capital city of the Norse Gods surrounded by an incomplete wall attributed to a Hrimthurs riding the stallion Svaðilfari, according to Gylfaginning. Valhalla is located within Asgard. Odin and his wife, Frigg, are the rulers of Asgard.

The primary sources regarding Asgard come from the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Icelandic Snorri Sturluson, and the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from a basis of much older Skaldic poetry. – Wikipedia

Kennings http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenning

List of Kennings http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_kennings

This question previously had details. They are now in a comment.

Fenrir is the father of the wolves Sköll and Hati Hróðvitnisson
Odin’s son Víðarr.

middle child of the giantess Angrboða and the god Loki. According to the Prose Edda, Odin took Loki’s three children, Fenrisúlfr, Hel and Jörmungandr. He tossed Jörmungandr into the great ocean that encircles Midgard. The serpent grew so large that he was able to surround the Earth and grasp his own tail. When he lets go the world will end.

Prose Edda, Húsdrápa, Hymiskviða, and Völuspá. Less important sources include kennings in skaldic poetry. For example in Þórsdrápa, faðir lögseims, “father of the sea-thread”, is used as a kenning for Loki.

Níðhöggr (Malice Striker, often anglicized Nidhogg) is a dragon who eats the roots of the World Tree, Yggdrasill.This root is placed over Niflheimr and Níðhöggr gnaws it from beneath. The same source also says that “[t]he squirrel called Ratatöskr runs up and down the length of the Ash, bearing envious words between the eagle and Nídhöggr.”

Sleipnir is Odin’s steed, the child of Loki and Svaðilfari. described as the best of all horses, and is sometimes ridden to the location of Hel. The Prose Edda contains extended information regarding the circumstances of Sleipnir’s birth, and details that he is gray in color.

Ōskapt name of Island (meadow?) where gods and Giants will fight final battle

Valhalla

AH! People think that all warriors go to Valhalla but not true.

You MUST DIE IN (during) the battle, not just be fatally wounded but die after it has ended. Also as Valkyrie says it must be devastatingly Painful to get into Valhalla.

Fólkvangr vs Valhalla

The two are pretty much the same. However leaders of the warriors would go to Valhalla while the regular soldiers/vikings would go to Fólkvangr. Fólkvangr means field of the host. Host refers to a large sum of people.

norse – How was it decided which warriors would go to …

In Norse mythology how are people chosen between Valhalla and folkvangr?

If Not Valhalla, Goddess Freyja Welcomed Viking Warriors to Folkvangr

Gods and Myths of Northern Europe

Gods and Myths of Northern Europe

This is a little more than just the myths. I didn’t care for it mostly because by the end it’s written as if Christianity came before The Norse Pagan religion when in fact it did not, Christianity was waging a war on those they deemed Heathen (any religion not Christian)  ‘I still have the book; though I don’t believe I will read it again.   Buy Now

You can Find a Bibliography at the end for What Books I have read and knowledge I noted here.

Norse Mythology Jelena Ralčić Nice try, but it’s actually the opposite. There are more Norse goddesses who wield weapons than there is Greek goddesses who wield weapons, just as there are more Norse goddesses than Greek goddesses.
Freya, the mightiest of the Norse goddesses, leads the Valkyries. The Valkyries consists of both goddesses, semi-goddesses and  mighty shieldmaidens. I prefer Norse myths instead Greek mythology because of its poems, its cosmology, its creatures, its places… its very complex compared with Greek myths…For a while i thought Thor would equal Zeus, but he is more comparable to Hercules…since they both scared the Gods so much with their strength as kids that they were sent to be raised outside of Realms of gods http://www.norsemyth.org/2012/03/middle-school-student-asks-about-norse.html

'Keep Calm' poster parody

Odinn

The All Father,  father of men, Woden, Wanderer, The Blazing Eye, who volunteered to lose an eye to drink from the well of wisdom.

His brothers are Villi (Will) and Ve (woe)

He is god of many attributes Death, War, wisdom and poetry to name a few.

Married to Frigg the patron goddess of marriage and motherhood  

Children (with Frigg) Balder, Hoder, Hermod, Tyr and Bragi.  and had THOR with his mistress Jord an earth goddess

He has 2 Ravens  Huginn  (I’ve seen 2 versions of the name as Huginor, Hermod) ,& Muninn    Thought & n Memory

and an 8 legged horse (born of Loki) named Sleipnir

and his Wolves Geri and Freki

His spear Gungnir never misses its target

magic ring Draupnir -to which everyday  a still fairer jewel falls

resides in his palace Gladsheim the great hall of Valhalla made with roof of golden shields, rafters of spears, and benches spread (littered) wit coats of mail. It has 540 entrance gates (doors) through which 800 warriors will march shoulder to shoulder (ride abreast) come Ragnarok. Each day the warriors fight, die and rise again to feast in the hall where at the west door a wolf stands and an Eagle hoovers above it.

Odin’s punishment for the Dwares that killed Kvasir…was for them to live underground and spend that time throwing fuel upon the earth’s central fire and to those only being mischievous to work  the gold and diamond mines fashioning precious stones and metals. They may come out at night but vanish with the dawn for if hit by the sun they will turn to stone

Havamal – Words of the High one or words of the one eyed.  The Norse Proverbs

Verses #146-163  are 18 runic spells Woden Learned on Yggdrasil. (What is the mystery of the runes?) 

Religion

Hold the Heathen Hammer High

Uppsala was a sacred Viking temple

Seers opened themselves up to spirit & magic with a combination of hallucinations as well as the transcedental power.

The Havamal could be said to be their bible. see Havamal

Ymir The first giant who’s son was Odin’s father. Odin & his brothers killed Ymir. THe Earth & Sky was made of him, the earth from body & sky from his skull & the seas from his blood.

Worshipped mostly open ‘holy’ groves meadows, also in specific wooden temple. Inside these sacred areas no blood could be shed or weapons carried.

Life began without any one creator

Heimdall- is the Genetic link between Gods & men

The Asatru has around 54 gods & Godesses

approached the gods whenever felt the need.

believed in afterlife and continued to contact with the dead.

Looked North to pray

Odin required a human sacrifice 3 times for a good year: At the beginning of winter, One for rebirth at Mid-winter & one summer victory

The arrival of 3 Giantesses or ‘Jotuns’ ended the golden ageof the gods

Man are from Ash & Woman from Elm

The Norns- meaning to Twine

Urd- that which has become (past)

Verthandi- that which is becoming (present)

Skuld- that which should become (future)

Valhalla & Einherjar

Yarrow & Mistletoe – herbs for ceremonies

Death- funeral pire among a ship. With possessions and offereings.

Ragnorock- ‘Armageddon’ When Heaven & Earth would be destroyed. Thor would fight to the end with jormungandr”the Midgard sea serpent that coils around the earth and all the god would fight their enemies where at the end. Thor & his fellow Gods’ children will carry on their legac

Landvaettir- Land wights are Norse spirits of the land which protect the flourishing of specific places where they live. Can be as small as a pebble or as large as a section of country

Dreams were thought to be the way the Gods communicated with humans

Conversion to Christianity (which was forced. If you didn’t convert, you were killed) nearly wiped out the teutenic myth…EPICS (Scandinavia & Iceland managed to preserve the sagas & epics (at least some) However the Norse Pagans though may have given in, didn’t fully give feilty to the new religion keeping their own meshing one of the NOrse Symbols, Thor’s hammer with the Christian cross. (I’ll have to look up what their punishent for traitors were)

Celtic & Norse magic are the only two true Western European magical traditions

The Northmen were among the last european societies to fall to christianity

HIstory of Northumbria in the Viking Era of 866-1066 AD{disclaimer – there are parts of my notes I was not able to read being I screwled them down a few months ago)

Unearthed Leagendary viking town>

Denmark’s arial view of the past

My God has a hammer

Leif Erikson Day

October 9

500 years before Italian explorer Christopher Columbus ‘discovered’ America;

Norse Explorer Leif Erikson son of Eric the Red  in the year 1000

was the first European to set foot on the North American continent.

Sadly we do not learn of Leif’s discovery in school, only Columbus’

(apparently the Board of Ed is controlled by some Christian group)

In 1964 Lynden B Johnson proclaimed the day to be Leif Erikson day.

                                             From Norse Mythology Blog

other Notable Viking Days

May 17- Norwegian Constitution day

June 8, 793  – The small Northumbrian holy island of Lindisfarne, is plundered by Vikings

and thus the start of Centuries of Viking activity in Britain. A brutal strike at the heart of

Anglo-saxon Christianity spreading fear and panic across Christian Europe

789 – 3 Norse ships landed on the coast of Wessex

ancient dragons scandinavian folklore mythology

This is a good video, tho there are some good points and bad points

Ragnar Lothbrok

Lothbrok is a nickname in old Norse interpreted to mean “hairy Breeches” . The nickname is thought to come from the breeches he wore during a fight with a dragon in one of the legends. Ragnar was married three times, Lagertha, Thora (a noblewoman) and Aslug, which bore him 6 sons (and no girls unlike what the Vikings tv series showed) Bjorn was not firstborn nor Lagertha’s son but Aslug’s. Besides Bjorn who became king of Sweden, his other sons are Halfdan (Northumbria & Dublin) Hvitsirk apossible  nicknname for Halfdan and (is thought to have found or may have become a king of Poland)  There’s Sigurd snake in the eye who gets Zealand and see he had 2 sons with Thora named Eiríkr and Agnar. Ivar I’ve read is actually the eldest of the sons. The sons hn Cnutold large landholdings in Zealand and Holland and Grandso is a ruler…aKing of England and Denmark.

“Ragnar’s sons pillage in England, Wales, France and Italy, until they come to the town of Luna in Italy. When they come back to Scandinavia, they divide the kingdom so that Björn Ironside has Uppsala and Sweden, Sigurd Snake-in-the-Eye has ZealandScaniaHallandVikenAgder, all the way to Lindesnes and most of Oppland, and Hvitserk receives Reidgotaland (Jutland) and Wendland“. -From Wiki

There are many contradictory stories but one has Ragnar as the son of a Swedish king, and in historical circles is supposed to be an amalgamation of several figures due to timelines and locations.

Navigation and Tools

Had the finest Ships & Weapons and were Excellent Horsemen & sailors. They were ferocious but sometimes

undisciplined fighters.

Smalls scales were carried by traders to accurately measure weight and have an accurate trade system without coins

During the Vikings age a sharp knife along with large Wooden Bowls & plates and spoons similar to today were used to eat.

Couldrons made of Soapstone or iron were most common way of cooking (likely boiling)

For more you can skip to the Viking Travel & Navigation section

Roads were used by warrirors, and Horseback mostly by the wealthy

Land Transport was used in the summer with Horses & carts and in the winter with a sledge

Weapons & Strategy

Training began with hunting, sports and raiding for Norse youth

Swords were handed down from father to son, and were also given names. Likely if someone owned a sword, it would probabbly have been the most expensive thing they owned

A Formation called the Svinfylking or Boar snout was used where heavily armed warrirors were situated on the front lines with the archers having their protection in the back.

Sheilds– Most of the time shields were made of wood as most vikings were too poor to afford metal armor. The sheild was a key part of their protection, and each shield was uniquely painted with a variety of colors, patterns and motifs. The shield were usually round about 3 feet in diameter and strengthened by an iron band around the rim. I’ve also read they sometimes were covered in leather. Toward the end of the Viking age circular shields gave way to Kite shaped ones which protected the legs

Axe The ax was the most common of weapons for the vikings as swords were costly and therefore mostly used by wealthier nobility. The mammen axe was specifically created for melee battle, throwing and breaking through shields.

Spears were the cheapest and most comon weapon axes were popular as well as they were used for farming

Armor was mostly a thick leather or chain mail that was light but strong.

Travel & Navigation

Vikings sailed in Long ships, and using a sun board (compass) or when there was no sun, a sunstone to navigate.

Viking Ships on Lore & Saga

Viking Ships on wiki

The Largest Viking warship discovered was measured at 119 feet long with 2,175 square foot sail had 70 oars and could carry a crew of 100 men! These had average speeds of 5-10 knots (1knot = 1.15078 Miles / hour or 1.853 kilmeters/h)

11 trees were required to build the standard 70 foot Viking Longship

Pinewood was used to make skis up to 6 foot 6 inches were used for land travel

The Dragon Figureheads on the ships were a way to scare sea monsters away and were removed before land wa sited, so those on land would not be frightened away.

Oak was the most common wood used to build ships

Most ships that were used during the viking age werewere used for daily life, not trading & battle

It would have taken most of an estimated 1-2 years to completely weave a sail, and would sometimes be dyed to a blood red to add to the intimidation

The Oseberg ship was discovered in Oseberg Norway in 1904 or 1905 its a royal 9th century yacht that sailed along the coast & inner waters of Norway

The Sunstone allowed Viking sailors to travel in the open sea even when the sun was not shining. By holding it up during a cloudy day the sunstone concentrates sunlight. Without these and Sunboards the vikings would sail near the coast, or be lost at sea.

Small ships (up to 70 feet long) were called KARVES and were used for Human, Animal & in trasportaion of goods.

the 13th century was the last time Viking ships were used

Sunboard kept direction of the way the ship was traveling ad staying on course by tracking the shadow cast by the noon sun on the board.

Raven a magical & powerful creature in the Viking world. A powerful symbol of war and as previously expressed in the section on the Norse God Odin, the Eyes & ears of Odin Vikings used them to aid in navigations on long voyages. When they are released; if they do not return it means there is land near.

Not only did they use these things but they also used other birds, whales and celestrial bodies during sea navigation

On the Stem & stern of the ship they would include an onrnately decorated Dragon head on the prow. This was supposed to scare away any sea monsters, and would typically be taken off when they would come close to land so as to not scare the inhabitants.

ships had a side rudder (instead of an anchor) so they could be sailed right on to shore

Parts of a Viking Long ship

How Vikings Navigated world

Jewlery

Arm Ring– is one of the most sacred objects in the life of a viking. It is bestowed upon a boy when he comes of age. The Arm ring binds the Viking to the local cheiftain. The vikings swear oaths upon their armrings and kept their oaths at all costs.

Amber Amulets were made for luck

Runes- their writing as well as used for magical inscriptions immensley powerful for he who would inscribe them into wod, stone & metal. Runes were used to ‘bless’ weapons, sometimes writing the weapon’s name with them. This coud have been entertainment & part of religion as well. For Divination purposes as well as trying to figure out the riddle of the runes Click to skip to Runes

Silver in the Norse economy played a Monetary & social role being used for trade and creating alliances

Uncovering History in the news

Disputed Skeleton of High-Ranking Viking Warrior Is Finally Proven Female

Huge Traditional Viking Mead Hall Opens in Seattle – Packed with Old Nordic Lore

Iceland With Kids: Exploring A Viking Village and an Elf Garden in Hafnarfjordur Iceland

Vikings @ Whitby Abbey

1,000-year-old Viking Sword in Extraordinary Condition Discovered in Ireland

1000-year-old-nordic-spearhead-raises-question-were-vikings-new-york

Bones of the Vikings: when raiding goes wrong

viking-arrowheads-emerge-melting-norwegian-glaciers

Hammer of Thor unearthed with Runes-1-000-year-old-amulet-solve-mystery-Viking-charms-worn-protection

Treasure Trove unearthed

Tomb of ‘Power couple’ found in Denmark

Viking ‘parliament’ site uncovered on Scottish island

Vikings Filed Their Teeth, Skeleton Study Shows

hunt-for-viking-dna-among-normandy-residents-riles-anti-racism-activists

Ivar The Boneless

He spans history and legend a famous warrior and one of the leaders of ‘The Great Heathen army’  that landed in 865 and went on to conquer them and Northumbria. He lead the raid in Ireland on Dumbarton on Clyde. Ivar is not mentioned in Englaish annal;s after 870 however likely spent the remainder of his career around the Irish sea and his death is recorded in Irish annals in 873 remembed as the founding fatherof the royal dynasty of the Viking Kingdom of Dublin and his descendants at various points also ruled other parts of Ireland, Northumbria and the Isle of man. There are many theories to his nickname. Some believe it was that like in the show he had brittle bone disease’ others believe it was a metaphor for impotence, that he was very flexible or as noted above the nickname ‘beinlausi’ could also be translated as ‘legless’ which might indicate lameness, like the loss of a leg in battle or simply being a drunkard.

Days of the Week

Monday – mánadagr=moon’s Day (Mani)

Tuesday- Tysdagr= Tyr’s day

Wednesday- óðinsdagr =Odin’s day

Thursday- þórsdagr= Thor’s Day

Friday- frjádagr-Freya’s Day (or Frigg’s Star)

Saturday- laugardagr – Washing Day

Sunday- sunnudagr= Sun’s Day

source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_the_days_of_the_week (Germanic tradition)

Months (& celebrations)

(looking for the source for this. The original site I had it on mucked it up)

Month-    Norse trans.    Celebration

January -Giuli- Snowmoon

February – Solmónaþ -Horning Charming of the plow

March – Hrédmónaþ-Lenting

April- Ãosturmónaþ-Ostara

May – Ãrimilchi-Merry moon

June- Líþa – Midyear

July- Líþa-Heymoon

August- Wéodmónaþ- Harvest -Freyfaxi

September- Háligmónaþ-Shedding

October- Winterfylleþ-Hunting

November- Blótmónaþ- Fogmoon

December- Giuuli-Yule

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanic_calendar

Astrological Connections

Purists of the Norse Religion may scoff at the idea of associating the various Gods and Goddesses to a system that was not originated by the Norse. However, for comparison purposes, it is helpful to be able to associate the deities with the various signs of the zodiac; if for no other reason than to help in astrological chart interpretations using a Norse background.
Aries: the fiery Loki, and Ostara, the goddess of Spring
Taurus: both the youthful Idunna and Weiland, smith of the Gods.
Gemini: Both Freyr and Freyja as the Twins.
Cancer: Blissful mother Fricka (Frigg); also Manni; Lord of the Moon
Leo: Mighty Thor; also, Sunna (the Sun)
Virgo: Sif (Sifa), the wife of Thor and Frowe of the harvest
Libra: Tyr, the lawgiver of the Gods; also Forseti, the god of Justice
Scorpio: Hela (Holle); Goddess of Death and Rebirth
Sagittarius: Allfather Odin (mounted on Sleipnir)
Capricorn: Skadi; Goddess of Winter and the Hunt; also Ullr, Lord of the Hunt
Aquarius: Heimdall, Guardian of the Rainbow Bridge
Pisces: Both Njord and Nerthus; God and Goddess of the Oceans and Rivers.

Cnut the Great

The ultimate viking success story, The younger son of Svein Forkbeard (that paints a picture doesn’t it?)  King of the Danes who conqured England in 1013 but died almost immediately. Cnut’s brother Harald inherited the Danish Kingdom this left Cnut possibly still in his teens to restore his father’s authority in England which reverted to Anglo-saxon King Ethelred the 2nd. Cnut had conquered England in his own right by 1016 , cementing his position by marriage to Etherlred’s widow. Not only did his success come through victory but in a few years became a King of Denmark peacefully. This was the first time all of Denmark and England were under the rule of one king. Come 1028 Cnut conqured Norway and established the largest North sea empire seen before or since however it fragmented  following his death in 1035.  While under the rule of Cnut Denmark benefitted from regular trade and an influx of ideas as well as a material wealth. Towns became more upoirtant as economic and administrative centers, Coinage was developed as well as as the influence of the christian church established. The traitor even went on a peaceful pilgrimage with the pope. He’s more an Anglo saxon king than a Viking but his greatest success illustrates  the great strength of Vikings…their abiity to adapt to a variety of cultures and circumstances. So the very fact that many of Cnut’s acheivements seem rather un-viking, makes him in some ways the ultimate.

THOR

also was known as Donnar

Son of Odin & his mistress Jord the personification of earth & a goddess

The red haired god protects Midgard (earth), with his mighty hammer Mjolnir which shatters mountains and protects asgard from the Giants  No matter how far he throws, Mjolnir always comes back.

He sits in his hall Thurdin & lives in a field of power in Asgard @ Uppsala where he rules the sky Thunder, lightning, winds and storm. 

Married to Sif (gold haired fertility goddess) and father to sons Magni, modi and daughter Thurd all from his mistress jarnsaxa

his belt- megingjord doubles his strength

Iron Gloves- jarngreipr

Battles Jormungandr the midgard serpent

THORSday

Putting the Thor in Thursday the days of the week from Tuesday to Friday are named after the Norse gods.

Thursday is Tyr’s Day

Wednesday is Odin or a variation of the name .. Woden’s day

and Friday is (I always mix Friday’s up) It’s either for Frey, Freya or Frigg

Thursday is reserved for the God of Thunder none other than Thor (the protector of Midgard aka Earth)

made for me by Steve Thompson

made for me by Steve Thompson Source: Thor squid

“On Thursday evening one must neither spin nor hew. The Esthonians think Thursday holier than Sunday. What punishment overtook the transgressor, may be gathered from another superstition, which, it is true, substituted the hallowed day of Christ for that of Donar (Thor):  “He that shall work on Trinity Sunday (the next after Pentecost), or shall wear anything sewed or knitted (on that day), shall be stricken by thunder.”

Thor is the Norse god of Thunder, wielding his hammer Mjolnir, which when struck, makes thunder.Thor is also associated with Lightning, Storms, oak trees, strength, Protection of humankind, as well as hallowing, healing, and fertility. During the Roman Empire period, the Germanic peoples adopted the Roman calendar and replaced the Roman gods with their own… the Latin dies Iovis “day of Jupiter’  was converted to proto-germanic it with Þonares degaz  “Thor’s day”  in which stemmed the English Thursday. Beginning in the Viking age personal names containing the theonym Thórr are recorded with frequency. Prior to the Viking age, no known examples are recorded. Thórr-based names may have flourished during the Viking age as a defiant response to attempts at Christianization, similar to the widescale Viking-age  practice of wearing Thor’s hammer pendants

The Challenge of Thor

I am the Thunderer!

I am the God Thor,

I am the War God,

Here in my Northland,

My fastness and fortress,

Reign I forever!

Here amid Iceburgs

Rule I the nations;

This is my hammer,

Miölner the mighty;

Giants and Sorcerers

Cannot withstand it!

These are the gauntlets

wherewith I weild it,

And hurl it afar off;

This is my girdle;

Whenever I brace it,

Strength is redoubled!

The Light thou beholdest

Stream through the heavens

in Flashes of crimson,

Is but my red beard

Blown by the night-wind,

Affrighting the nations!

Jove is my brother;

Mine eyes are the lightning;

The wheels of my chariot

Roll in the Thunder

The blows of my hammer

Ring in the earthquake!

-Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Exploring the Legacy of Thor in Norway – In the Footsteps of Vikings

First off, in Norse ‘myth’ its Valkyries not one of the name Valkyrie, the character was made up by Marvel. not to mention the character for the movie looks NOTHING like a Valkyrie which used to be those who’d go to the battlefields and decide what warriors/soldiers would be taken to Valhalla.  Of the Valkyries One’s name was Brunhild, and believe I saw Lagerda was another one of the others’ names.

Pagan’ religion I’ve come to find is usually used as a term for any and all religions NOT Christian as I’ve seen it used for Egyptian, Roman and Greek and many others. (I find this VERY insulting)

From what I’ve read The Norse/Vikings rarely wrote. usually Runes were used mostly to carve weapons (spells or named battle gear) or to honor the dead and so on.(like the runestones But the common norse would not have known. I read somewhere it was usually the priests, Black smiths and those that were ‘mystics’

I think You may have made a little typo. Its not MIME’s well.. it is Mímir’s well. No where else does it say mime’s (in my books, on wiki, Norse blog, nor other sites)

10 Signs You are a Viking

Svǫrt verða sólskin
of sumor eptir,
veðr ǫll válynd
Vitoð ér enn, eða hvat?

Brœðr muno beriaz
ok at bǫnom verða
muno systrungar
sifiom spilla.
Hart er í heimi,
hórdómr mikill
—skeggǫld, skálmǫld
—skildir ro klofnir—
vindǫld, vargǫld—
áðr verǫld steypiz.
Mun engi maðr
ǫðrom þyrma.

Translation:

It sates itself on the life-blood
of fated men,
paints red the powers’ homes
with crimson gore.
Black become the sun’s beams
in the summers that follow,
weathers all treacherous.
Do you still seek to know? And what?

Brothers will fight
and kill each other,
sisters’ children
will defile kinship.
It is harsh in the world,
whoredom rife
—an axe age, a sword age
—shields are riven—
a wind age, a wolf age—
before the world goes headlong.
No man will have
mercy on another.

#Ragnarök #Vikings

                                              https://www.facebook.com/plugins/post.php?href=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2Fnorsemythology%2Fphotos%2Fa.130109523685391.17678.129784597051217%2F761741017188902%2F%3Ftype%3D3&width=500

 

Viking History

Einarr skulason was one of the most important 12th century skalds and lived in Norway with Sigurd l Magnusson, Harald Gille and Harlad’s sons

Key Dates in Viking History

The truth about Viking berserkers

6 Vikings Rulers You should know (+ video)

Viking Place Names – The Legacy of the Norse

historical-truth-ragnar-lodbrok/

Ragnar’s Forgotten Wife not really sure how much to put into this, as I KNOW the History channel show is based on history, (but also uses creative license. Ragnar and Rollo were not brothers but were made so for the show to tell about 2 iconic people of Viking history.)

dukes of normandy

historical-truth-rollo

the Real Lagertha

 Came across this, though it sounds like a speak n spell

AS for reading anything by Snorri-Sturluson(just click the link)

Týr: Honoring Norse Roots with Heavy Metal – Metal at the Gates

The Norse “Zombie”: The Aptrganga

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Eirik Bloodaxe

known as fierce warrior as his archetypal Viking nickname shows. He was involved with raiding  around the British Isles and in the Baltic since his early teens. He was (at different points) a King of Western Norway and at another time King in Northumbria where he still has a legacy in York’s Viking based tourist industry. How he got his nickname is less impressive, as it came from kiling several of his brothers. Erik and his wife Gunnhild  (who was either a Danish princess or Witch from Northern Norway) between them were responsible for the deaths of 5 of his brothers. His brother Håkon the Good challenge Eirik for the kingship of Norway during the growing unpopularity of Eirik and his wife, and wasn’t able to muster enough support and fled without a fight. bloodaxe was wiling to even give his enemies fair hearings however was said to be under the thumb of his dominating wife which made him ‘too easily persuaded’ which from this description makes him come off as more like a cartoon characterHagar the Horrible anyone?  More than a real viking hero.

Norse Magic (Llewellyn's World Religion & Magick)

Norse Magic (Llewellyn’s World Religion & Magick)

I purchased this years back, probably when I was still in school.  I still re-read it from time to time. There’s not much more I can mention other than it includes a short history section, Rune Tables and associations, Myths and Deities, as well as  spell work and more, Celebrations as well (but these are the same for any pagan or Wiccan) .   Buy Now

Miscellany Norse Gods & Goddess info

Vanir- Sea & Air  Gods & Goddess   & their boar is named Gulinbursti

AEsir (plural Asyniur) Earth   Their council heads are Thor, Tyr, Braggi, Hoenir, Frey and Njord

Kvasir sprang up out of the peace made between Asir and Vanir

Valhalla-(on-valholl) Hall of the slain

GulinBursti-Vanir Gods’ boar

Huginn & Muninn – Odins Ravens of Memory & Thought

Sleipnir – Odin’s 8 legged horse

Skidbladnir (ship) the whole Asir could sit and sail in and fold up so small it could be carried in your hand

Giallarbru bridge- river between the living and dead

Gleipnir-chain that bound the wolf Fenrir and I think I saw that a Wedge battle formation was named for this

Dromi “Strong Body’ Chain made by Thor

Laeding- made by Asa Thor

Peacestead- Frigga’s Crystal Saloon field or playground of the Aesir

Aegir (?)  has 9 daughters

Njord  wife Skadi  children Freya and Freyr

Freyr  is the summer king  King and schoolteacher of the Elves in Alfheim   and married Gerd

FREYA

Folkvang- Freya’s palace and sessrymnir is the palace hall’s name

Brisingamen- Freya’s necklace

Freya rides a chariot pulled by cats

Heimdall (rack Rik)

Gjallarhorn  Heimdall’s horn (associated with the well of Wisdom) which he will blow to announce Ragnarok

Goldenmane- Heimdall’s steed

Broadblink- Baldur’s Palace

Ringhorn- Baldur’s ship

William LongSword

Viking Place Names

-thorpe: secondary settlement (but in the Midlands could by Old English Throp meaning settlement). Example Copmanthorpe
-thwaite: originally thveit, woodland clearing. Example Slaithwaite (Huddersfield)
-toft: site of a house or building. Example Lowestoft, Langtoft-
-keld: spring. Example Threkeld
-ness: promontory or headland. Note: Sheerness is Old English; Inverness is Gaelic (meaning mouth), Skegness is Old Norse
-by: farmstead, village, settlement. Example Selby, Whitby
-kirk: originally kirkja, meaning church. Example Ormskirk

Sheffield: field by the River Sheaf

Harrogate: Place at the road to the cairn (heap of stones)
Wetherby: wether sheep farmstead
Whitby: white farm
Scarborough: the stronghold of Skarth

Bibliography

Jackson Crawford  Wanderer’s Havamal Is both in Old Norse and an english translation. & Also check out his Old Norse Youtube Channel

Gods and Myths of Northern Europe H.R. Ellis Davidson

Nordic Gods and Heroes Padraic Colum

A little bit of Runes; An Introduction to Norse Divination

Tales of Norse Mythology A.E. Keary

THe NOrse Myths Kevin Crossley Holland

A History of the Vikings T.D. Kendrick

THe Poetic Edda Carolyne Larrington (Oxford Worlds Classics)\

Myths of the Norsemen Helen Guerber

Myths of the NOrsemen Roger lancelyn Green (Penguin Cassics)

The sayings of the Vikings (Hvamal)

The Wanderer’s Havamal Jackson Crawford

D’Aulaires’ Book of Norse Myths

Battle For Asgard: Birth Of The Berserker (The Berserker Chronicles Book 1)  by W Kearney

Norse Mythology for Smart People – The Ultimate Online Guide to Norse Mythology and Religion (great website, check it out)

TAFL: Ancient Board Games of the Norse and Celtic Peoples of Scandinavia and the British Isles (Ancient Games Book 1)

Aud the Deep-minded

also known as Deep-Wealthyshe she is remembered as one of the great founding settlers of Iceland. She was the daughter of the Norweigain chieftain Ketil Flatnose. Was the wife of Olaf the White the King of Dublin in mid 9th century and following his death moved to Scotland with her son Thorstein the Red a great warrioror and who became a king of a large part of north and western Scotland. Later Aud took her grand-children with her to the settlement of Iceland  in the 870s . SHe had a ship built and sailded first to the Orkney, married off one of her grand-daughters and back to Iceland claiming a large piece of land in the west. She was accompanied by friends and famiy along with SCottish and Irish slaves the last group of which she set free granting them each a small part of her larger claim of land encouraging loyalty from their descendants to hers.

On Screen

Northmen trailer & Vikingdom reviews

Northmen

was a decent movie starring Ryan Kwanten of True blood fame

Movie ‘Vikingdom’ insults the followers of old religion Open letter to the makers of Vikingdom” The letter notes How they get The stories & meaning of Thor backwards & twist many of the beliefs to their own agenda. (& how aweful was it? It came on Syfy channel April 26th)

as far as the beginning credits goes, it looks like a wannabe 300. Dominic Purcel stars (& that would be like the 4th or 5th Aussie playing a Viking (of some sort) Wait he just died, in the beginning.. Oh wait that’s a little backstory ok. Basically theis had to be written by Christians and the Red hair on Thor is laughable ..yes he had red hair, but I doubt it was Hot Topic dye Red! They have the Vikings wearing helmets which was VERY rare if at all and definately was NOT a whole army. People probably are mixing Vikings & Saxons. Frey reminds me of David Bowie with the outfit they have on him. THe Portrayal of Thor as if he is more predator than the protector of the people. This was so insulting & So bad I couldn’t keep waching it. Where is Sharknado to take it away?

Season 3 announce

Northemen: A viking saga starring Ryan Kwanten (of True Blood) will open October 9 in Germany & the german speaking region of Switzerland

*Odin & the Lords of Asgaurd video

*VIKINGS series on History Channel

GAMES

Hildarting – Farose Viking themed Board game

Hnefatafl – Viking Chess    (Rules here)

Hurstwic: Games and Sports in the Viking Age

Nine Mens morris       Explanation of the rules

The Board Game inspired by theTV series

Most of these are just Viking Themed not ones the Vikings actually played

Recommended reads (seen in a Quora Question)

Neil Gaiman’s Norse Mythology (this is a big one, and there’s a reason it’s on top—it’s the best Norse mythology book I’ve read)

The Gospel of Loki (a book of Norse myths with a twist—they’re from Loki’s POV)

The Testament of Loki (sequel to The Gospel of Loki, it doesn’t really belong in this list, but I added it in case you like the first one and want to read more)

The Valkyrie Trilogy (this isn’t a book of myths, rather its own series, but I learned a lot more about Norse mythology while reading it)

Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard (see Valkyrie notes)

Links, sites & sources

25 Fascinating Facts About Norse Mythology  Not sure how reliable as some never herd of and others like Aegir is not a Norse god, but is jotun and marries Nan

”vall’Halla-ween costumes

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vikings

Vikings History: An Overview of the Culture and History of the Viking Age

Ascending the Steps to Hliðskjálf: The Cult of Óðinn in Early Scandinavian Aristocracy

Norse Mythology Facebook page

thenorsegods is good for a beginner to start or just give you a refresher for those that are rusty.

http://spangenhelm.com/  & an article on Viking Shields

**NOTES to self:

Find which Book…  “CH.3  People- on Norns’

Actually those we perceive as Viking in the shows etc screens…would be insulted by the name. They are drengr that if I remember my lessons on Jackson’s YouTube old Norse page is what he said they should be called. Many Vikings were farmers, but would go raiding. The raiding was to ensure their survival in the winter (to buy more animals, trade whatever with the riches they found) and many were left home as well to guard the village. People forget norse religion came before Christianity and their so called traditions they Appropriated stole (whichever ohrase you orefer) from varying pre Christian religions. Hell came from hel . there are 2 parts of Norse hel.. One part is those who die of old age and sickness.
(Don’t even get me started in Christmas and everything Appropriated from everywhere for that

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7 thoughts on “Noble Norse

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